A LIST OF "OFFICIALLY SANCTIONED"
WORDS FROM THE CAUCASUS
Origin: European languages > Armenian (2 words)
1. lavash, n. (first reference: 1662)
Pronunciation: Brit. /ləˈvɑːʃ/, /ləˈvaʃ/, U.S. /ləˈvɑʃ/, /ləˈvæʃ/
Inflections: Plural unchanged.
Forms: 16 18 lawasch, 18– lawash, 18– lawasha, 19– lavash, 19– levash.
Etymology: Partly < Armenian lawaš and partly < Ottoman Turkish lavāš (modern Turkish lavaş) and its etymon Persian lavāš. The form lawasha probably reflects Kurdish lewashe.
In Middle Eastern cookery: a type of unleavened or slightly leavened flatbread. Also more fully lavash bread.
1662 J. Davies tr. A. Olearius Voy. & Trav. Ambassadors 321 The Lawasch are round, and about the thickness of a man's finger.
1834 J. von Hammer tr. Ç. Evilyá Narr. Trav. I. ii. xxx. 121 They bake some small sorts of bread and cake called Ramazán pídeh, súmún, and lawasha, which they throw out in the Emperor's presence.
1875 C. Heneage tr. M. von Thielmann Journey Caucasus II. v. 27 The bread was the lawasch, which is baked in the shape of thin pancakes several yards in length.
1937 Los Angeles Times 5 Oct. a2/8 The culinary explorer will have his choice of Italian spaghetti, Armenian lavash—bread to you!—French salad, Swedish pastry and German coffee.
1988 Washington Post (Electronic ed.) 11 Feb. (Virginia section) 14 The complimentary breads... were a fresh, pleasing assortment of pumpernickel raisin, sourdough rye and crackerlike lavash.
2001 Adrenalin No. 9. 115/3 As he scoffed down his breakfast of lavash bread and honey, he showed no signs that the altitude was affecting him.
2. vartabed, n. (first reference: 1718)
Forms: Also vardapet, vartabad, vartapet, etc.
A member of an order of clergy in the Armenian church (see quot. 1847).
1718 J. Ozell tr. J. Pitton de Tournefort Voy. Levant II. viii. 303 These Vertabiets, who make such a noise among the Armenians, are not in reality great Doctors.
1841 L. Coleman tr. J. C. W. Augusti Antiq. Christian Church xxiii. 470 The vartabeds live not among the people, but in convents.
1847 J. Wilson Lands of Bible II. 482 The monkish clergy are denominated Vartabads or Doctors, and it is their peculiar office to teach and preach.
1875 Encycl. Brit. II. 549/2 The vartabed, or doctor of theology... has frequently charge of a diocese, with episcopal functions.
1923 Blackwood's Mag. Aug. 252/1 The Patriarch and an Armenian vartabed... are pushed inside.
1957 Oxf. Dict. Christian Church 87/1 Bishops... are usually chosen from among the vardapets.
1964 P. F. Anson Bishops at Large i. 37 Almost any alien, provided that he... calls himself an abuna,... pappas, rasophor, starets, synkellos,... vartapet... invariably finds a warm welcome in England.
1982 Encycl. Brit. Macropædia VI. 140 Another class of priests is represented by the vartabeds, or doctors, who must remain unmarried.
Origin: European languages > South Caucasian (5 words)
1. Adjar/Adjarian, n. and adj. (first reference: 1848)
Pronunciation: Brit. /aˈdʒɑː/, U.S. /ˌæˈdʒɑr/
Inflections: Plural unchanged.
Forms: α. 18– Adjar, 18– Ajar, 19– Adzhar; β. 19– Achar.
Etymology: In α. forms < French Adjar a native of Adjara (1840) and its etymon Russian adžar (1836 or earlier; usually transliterated Adzhar ) < the base of Georgian Ač'ara , the name of Adjara (see Adjarian n.), Ač'areli (noun) a native of Adjara, (as adjective, only of people) belonging or relating to Adjara. In β. forms directly < Georgian Ač'ara. With use as adjective compare Russian adžarskij.
A. n. A native or inhabitant of Adjara, a region of Georgia (now an autonomous republic) situated on the east coast of the Black Sea.
1848 tr. F. Lacroix Myst. Russia 175 More than one reverse humbled the Russian armies; among others... the disastrous expedition... against... the Adjars [Fr. les Adjars].
1856 New Monthly Mag. 106 135 The Adjars and Lazis... carried the outer walls, and advanced through the town to assault the citadel.
1891 A. H. Keane tr. É. Reclus Earth & its Inhabitants IV. 178 The Lazes of the seaboard and the Ajars of the coast ranges between Batum and Trebizond, are Mohammedans of Georgian stock.
1920 Q. Rev. Oct. 424 The Adjars, ethnically Georgian but culturally Turkish, inhabit the hill-country south of Batum.
1974 Encycl. Brit. Micropædia I. 106/3 The population of Adzhariya includes Georgians, Russians, Armenians, and Adzhars.
2008 N.Y. Rev. Bks. 6 Nov. 21/2 Gamsakhurdia's rhetoric provoked fear among all Georgian minorities—Adjars, Armenians, Azeris, Greeks, Russians, Abkhazians, and Ossetians.
B. adj. Of or relating to Adjara or its inhabitants.
1915 Ogden (Utah) Standard 8 Jan. 1/1 Bands of Adjar tribesmen who have taken up the cause of Turkey, fought against us at Ardahan.
1960 Encycl. Islam (new ed.) I. 1108/2 The Adjar region at first constituted a self-governing administrative unit.
1989 Times 21 Apr. 10/7 Some 500 houses have been destroyed by recent mudslides and flooding in the Adzhar republic on the border with Turkey.
2001 Jrnl. Contemp. Hist. 36 223 The division had been... composed of the Chechen, Cherkess and Tatar (Azerbaijani) cavalry regiments and an Adjar infantry battalion.
2. lari, n. (first reference: 1992)
Pronunciation: Brit. /ˈlari/, U.S. /ˈlæri/
Inflections: Plural laris, unchanged.
Etymology: < Georgian lari.
The principal monetary unit of Georgia, consisting of 100 tetri.
1992 Russ. News Abstr. 68/2 The Georgian prime-minister, Tengiz Sigua, says that the Georgian national currency, the lari, will be introduced in 1993.
1999 G. Bear Darwin's Radio ii. 12 Georgia was planning to turn itself into a nation of resorts. Her economy was growing in double digits each year; her currency, the lari, was strengthening as well.
2004 G. I. Nwanna Americans traveling Abroad xxi. 300/1 While the Georgian lari is the only legal tender, dollars can be freely exchanged for laris at market rates.
3. mkhedruli, n. (and adj.) (first reference: 1845)
Pronunciation: Brit. /məˈkɛdrʊli/ , /m(ə)ˈxɛdrʊli/ , U.S. /məˈkɛdruli/
Forms: 18– mkhedruli, 19– mxedruli.
Etymology: < Georgian mxedruli (adjective) military < mxedari knight, mounted warrior, rider. This form of the alphabet is so named because it was developed for knightly (i.e. military or secular) use alongside the two earlier forms of the script known jointly as xucuri ‘ecclesiastical’ (consisting of an old alphabet called mrglovani ‘rounded’, which had come to serve as uncials to its angular derivative nusxuri ‘minuscule’).
The Georgian script of 33 (originally 38) characters as developed for secular use in the 11th cent. and still used for printing and writing the modern Georgian language. Also attrib. or as adj.
1845 Encycl. Metrop. XXV. 1349/1 The Georgians have a form [of the alphabet] called mkhedruli,... regularly employed in civil transactions.
1913 J. O. Wardrop Catal. Georgian MSS in Brit. Mus. 405 On the left, a request in mkhedruli for God's mercy.
1913 J. O. Wardrop Catal. Georgian MSS in Brit. Mus. 403 Then follows a scrawl in the same mkhedruli hand.
1932 W. E. D. Allen Hist. Georgian People xxviii. 309 The Georgians, in the Middle Ages, made use of two scripts, the cursive script called mkhedruli or ‘military’ and the ecclesiastical script called khutzuri.
1947 D. Diringer Alphabet ii. v. 324 The German scholar Sunker holds that both the Mkhedruli and Khutsuri are based, like the Armenian alphabet, on Aramaic-Pahlavi scripts.
1977 K. Katzner Lang. World ii. 124 The origin of the Georgian alphabet is obscure, but it is known to have been invented in the 5th century a.d... The present script, called Mkhedruli (‘secular writing’), replaced the original Khutsuri (‘church writing’) in the 11th century.
1996 D. A. Holisky in P. T. Daniels & W. Bright World's Writing Systems 364 The order of the characters of mxedruli follows that of the Greek alphabet, except when a Greek character does not have a Georgian equivalent.
1998 B. G. Hewitt in G. Price Encycl. Lang. Europe (2000) 79 In the 11th c. there was a further development back to rounded characters, producing the so-called mxedruli ‘military’ script still used today.
4. Mukuzani, n. (first reference: 1948)
Pronunciation: Brit. /mʊkʊˈzɑːni/ , U.S. /ˌmʊkʊˈzɑni/
Etymology: < Georgian Muk'uzani (k' is an ejective velar plosive) < Muk'uzani, the name of the district in K'akheti, Georgia, where the grapes used for this wine are cultivated. Compare Russian Mukuzani. The wine has been in production since 1888.
A dry red wine from the Republic of Georgia.
1948 G. H. Hanna tr. N. Mikhailov & V. Pokshishevsky Soviet Russia, Land & People ii. xvi. 136 Kahetian wines—Napareuli, Tsinondali [sic] and Mukuzani—are amongst the best in the USSR.
1961 Spectator 7 Apr. 495 The first Soviet wines to be imported into Britain—Mukuzani, Gurdzhaani and Tsinandali, all from Georgia.
1982 L. Chamberlain Food & Cooking of Russia (1983) 303 Mukuzani... stains the imbiber's lips a deep purple.
1999 Guardian (Electronic ed.) 19 Sept., Bottles of Mukuzani, Stalin's favourite red, appeared before us.
5. tetri, n. (first reference: 1993)
Pronunciation: Brit. /ˈtɛtri/ , U.S. /ˈtɛtri/
Inflections: Plural tetris, unchanged.
Etymology: < Georgian tetri white, used of silver coins.
A monetary unit of Georgia, equal to one hundredth of a lari.
1993 Wall St. Jrnl. 5 Nov. a6/6 The highest denomination among the sample coins is 50 tetri.
1999 Gazette (Montreal) (Nexis) 27 Mar. (Travel section) h3 A Coke from a streetside vendor will cost 50 tetri, at most one lari.
2006 T. Goltz Georgia Diary 228 You can't have little pieces of real estate like Adjaria going around doing their own thing, refusing to put a tetri (a nickel, as it were) into the national exchequer.
2007 T. Burford Georgia (Bradt Travel Guides) (ed. 3) i. 35 In 1999 the tariff was increased from 6 tetris... per kilowatt to 9.8 tetris.
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